ABCI Singularity Endpoint
ABCI Singularity Endpoint provides a singularity container service available within ABCI. This service consists of Remote Builder for remotely building container images using SingularityPRO and Container Library for storing and sharing the created container images. This service is available only within ABCI and cannot be accessed directly from outside of ABCI.
The following describes the basic operations for using this service in ABCI. See Sylabs Document for more information.
Loading environment module
In order to use this service, load the module of SingularityPRO as follows.
[username@es1 ~]$ module load singularitypro/3.5
Singularity 2.6.1 does not support this service.
Creating Access Token
You need to obtain an access token to authenticate your requests. The access token can be created by using the
get_singularity_token command on the interactive node with your ABCI password, which is used to log in to ABCI User Portal.
[username@es1 ~]$ get_singularity_token ABCI portal password : just a moment, please... (The generated access token will be displayed.)
Keep your access token in a safe place for a later registration step.
The access token is a very long single line of text, so be careful not to include unnecessary characters such as newlines.
Checking remote endpoint
To check that ABCI Singularity Endpoint (cloud.se.abci.local) is correctly configured as a remote endpoint, use
singularity remote list command.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity remote list NAME URI GLOBAL [ABCI] cloud.se.abci.local YES SylabsCloud cloud.sylabs.io YES [username@es1 ~]$
ABCI enclosed in "[ ]" is the current default endpoint.
Singularity container images can also be retrieved using the Singularity Global Client. For details, refer to here.
Registering Access Token
To register the access token obtained above with your configuration, use
singularity remote logincommand for ABCI Singularity Endpoint.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity remote login ABCI INFO: Authenticating with remote: ABCI Generate an API Key at https://cloud.se.abci.local/auth/tokens, and paste here: API Key: INFO: API Key Verified! [username@es1 ~]$
When you have created an access token again, use the above command to register it. The old access token is overwritten by the new one.
The validity period of access tokens is one year.
First, create a definition file to build a container image. The following example defines installation of additional packages to the container image and commands to be executed when the container image is run, based on Ubuntu container image from Docker Hub. For more information about definition files, see Definition Files.
[username@es1 ~]$ vi ubuntu.def [username@es1 ~]$ cat ubuntu.def Bootstrap: docker From: ubuntu:18.04 %post apt-get update apt-get install -y lsb-release %runscript lsb_release -d [username@es1 ~]$
Next, to create the container image "ubuntu.sif" by Remote Build with "ubuntu.def", specify
--remote to the command
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity build --remote ubuntu.sif ubuntu.def INFO: Remote "default" added. INFO: Authenticating with remote: default INFO: API Key Verified! INFO: Remote "default" now in use. INFO: Starting build... : : INFO: Build complete: ubuntu.sif [username@es1 ~]$
You can run the container image with
singularity run command as follows:
[username@es1 ~]$ qrsh -g grpname -l rt_C.small=1 -l h_rt=1:00:00 [username@g0001 ~]$ module load singularitypro/3.5 [username@g0001 ~]$ singularity run ubuntu.sif Description: Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS [username@g0001 ~]$
lsb_release -d command specified in the definition file is executed and the result is printed.
Container Library (Experimental)
You can push your container images to Container Library and make those available to other ABCI users. Each user can store up to a total of 100 GiB.
There is no access control function for the container images pushed to Container Library. This means that anyone who uses ABCI will be able to access them, so make sure the container images are appropriate.
Creating and Registering Signing Keys for a Container Image
To push a container image to Container Library and publish it in ABCI, create a key pair and register the public key in Keystore.The author of the container image can sign the container image using the private key, and the user of the container image can verify the signature using the public key registered in Keystore.
Creating Key Pairs
To create key pairs, use
singularity key newpair command.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key newpair Enter your name (e.g., John Doe) : Enter your email address (e.g., firstname.lastname@example.org) : Enter optional comment (e.g., development keys) : Enter a passphrase : Retype your passphrase : Would you like to push it to the keystore? [Y,n] Generating Entity and OpenPGP Key Pair... done
Each input value is described as follows:
|Enter your name||Enter the ABCI account name.|
|Enter your email address||Although it says email address, enter the ABCI account name.|
|Enter optional comment||Enter comments you want to attach to this key pair.|
|Enter a passphrase||Determine your passphrase and enter it. It is going to be necessary when signing a container image.|
|Would you like to push it to the keystore?||Enter
To retrieve information about the public keys in your local keyring, including ones you created, use
singularity key list.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key list Public key listing (/home/username/.singularity/sypgp/pgp-public): : : -------- 7) U: username (comment) <username> C: 2020-06-15 03:40:05 +0900 JST F: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX L: 4096 -------- [username@es1 ~]$
To retrieve key information registered in Keystore, specify the ABCI account in
singularity key search -l.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key search -l username Showing 1 results FINGERPRINT ALGORITHM BITS CREATION DATE EXPIRATION DATE STATUS NAME/EMAIL YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY RSA 4096 2020-06-15 03:40:05 +0900 JST [ultimate] [enabled] username (comment) <username> [username@es1 ~]$
Registering a Public Key in Keystore
If you did not specify the option to upload a public key to Keystore, you can upload it later.
Public keys registered in Keystore cannot be deleted.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key list 0) U: username (comment) username C: 2020-08-08 04:28:35 +0900 JST F: ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ L: 4096 --------
To upload this public key number 0, specify the fingerprint shown in
F as the
singularity key push.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key push ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ public key `ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ' pushed to server successfully [username@es1 ~]$ singularity key search -l username Showing 1 results FINGERPRINT ALGORITHM BITS CREATION DATE EXPIRATION DATE STATUS NAME/EMAIL ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ RSA 4096 2020-06-15 03:40:05 +0900 JST [ultimate] [enabled] username (comment) <username>
Getting Public Keys Registered in Keystore
Public keys registered in Keystore can be downloaded and stored in your keyring. The following example downloads and saves the public key found by searching for username2. You can also search for a string that matches the comment attached to the key. The last parameter of
singularity key pull AAAA.... is a fingerprint to specify which public key to download.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key search -l username2 Showing 2 results FINGERPRINT ALGORITHM BITS CREATION DATE EXPIRATION DATE STATUS NAME/EMAIL AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA RSA 4096 2020-06-22 11:51:45 +0900 JST [ultimate] [enabled] username2 (comment) <username2> [username@es1 ~]$ singularity key pull AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 1 key(s) added to keyring of trust /home/username/.singularity/sypgp/pgp-public [username@es1 ~]$ singularity key list : : 1) U: username2 (comment) <username2> C: 2020-08-10 11:51:45 +0900 JST F: AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA L: 4096 -------- [username@es1 ~]$
You can remove a public key from your keyring by specifying a key fingerprint using
singularity key remove command. Public keys registered in Keystore cannot be deleted.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key remove AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Uploading Container Images
Before uploading a container image to Container Library, sign the container image.
Check the key number by using the
singularity key list -s command, and sign the container by using the
singularity sign command with the
-k option to specify the key number.
The following example uses the second key to sign
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity key list -s Public key listing (/home/username/.singularity/sypgp/pgp-secret): : : -------- 2) U: username (comment) <username> C: 2020-06-15 03:40:05 +0900 JST F: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX L: 4096 -------- [username@es1 ~]$ singularity sign -k 2 ./ubuntu.sif Signing image: ./ubuntu.sif Enter key passphrase : Signature created and applied to ./ubuntu.sif
The location of container images in Container Library is represented by a URI
library://username/collection/container:tag. Refer to the description of each component below to determine the URI.
|username||Specifies your ABCI account|
|collection||Specify collection name as any string|
|container||Specify the container image name as any string.|
|tag||A string identifying the same container image. A string such as version, release date, revision number or
Here is an example of uploading the container image
ubuntu, specifying the collection name
abci-lib and the tag name
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity push ubuntu.sif library://username/abci-lib/ubuntu:latest INFO: Container is trusted - run 'singularity key list' to list your trusted keys 35.36 MiB / 35.36 MiB [===========================================================================================================================================================================================================] 100.00% 182.68 MiB/s 0s [username@es1 ~]$
Downloading Container Images
The container image uploaded to Container Library can be downloaded as follows:
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity pull library://username/abci-lib/ubuntu:latest INFO: Downloading library image 35.37 MiB / 35.37 MiB [=============================================================================================================================================================================================================] 100.00% 353.47 MiB/s 0s INFO: Download complete: ubuntu_latest.sif [username@es1 ~]$
If the signature cannot be verified, you will see a warning message similar to the following, but the download will continue.
WARNING: Skipping container verification
You can also use
singularity verify to verify the signature after downloading it.
The following example validates the signature with the public key that is registered in Keystore. The output is
LOCAL rather than
REMOTE if it is verified with the public key registered in your keyring. If it cannot be verified, a WARNING message is printed.
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity verify ubuntu_latest.sif Verifying image: ubuntu_latest.sif [REMOTE] Signing entity: username (comment) <username> [REMOTE] Fingerprint: BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB Objects verified: ID |GROUP |LINK |TYPE ------------------------------------------------ 1 |1 |NONE |Def.FILE 2 |1 |NONE |JSON.Generic 3 |1 |NONE |FS Container verified: ubuntu_latest.sif
You can still run the container image if validation fails, but it is recommended that you use a verifiable container image.
Searching Container Images
To search for container images uploaded to Container Library by keyword, use
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity search hello No users found for 'hello' No collections found for 'hello' Found 1 containers for 'hello' library://username/abci-lib/helloworld Tags: latest
Deleting Container Images
To delete a container image from Container Library, use
[username@es1 ~]$ singularity delete library://username/abci-lib/helloworld:latest
You can delete container images such as
library://username/abci-lib/helloworld:latest, which are associated with at least one tag or ID, but you can not delete container names such as
Listing Container Images
To list the container images uploaded to Container Library, use
The container images are displayed in the URI format
If the container image has been tagged,
Tag appears on the next line of the container image URI. If no tag is given,
Unique ID is displayed instead.
[username@es1 ~]$ list_singularity_images library://username/collection1/container1 Tag: latest library://username/collection2/container2 Unique ID: sha256.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx library://username/collection3/container3
Unique ID is displayed, it means that there is no container image in the container.
You can also add option
list_singularity_images to display the fingerprint (if present) and image size.
[username@es1 ~]$ list_singularity_images -v library://username/collection1/container1 Tag: latest Image Size: 10.00 MB Finger Prints: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX library://username/collection2/container2 Unique ID: sha256.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Image Size: 20.00 MB library://username/collection3/container3